Andreas' History of the State of Nebraska
Knox County
Produced by Deborah S. Avelis.


Surface, Soil and Streams | Indians | Accidents and Crimes
Early Navigation of the Missouri | County Organization
Lands | County Bonds | General Statistics
Santee Sioux Agency

Biographical Sketches
Niobrara:   Local History | The Flood of 1881
Biographical Sketches

Creighton:   Biographical Sketches
Bazile Mills:   Biographical Sketches
Pischelville | Millerboro | Other Towns

Illustration in Knox County: [Portrait of John C. Santee.]



J. H. BARKER, Indian trader, is a native of Herkimer County, N. Y. In 1844 came to Washington County, Wis., with his parents; there assisted on their farm. He then followed the ocean and lakes about five years. Enlisted in 1861 in Company B, Fifth Iowa Cavalry; remained in the service till 1866. In the fall of 1867 he secured the position as clerk at Fort Randall, D. T., remained there two and one-half years, then employed at the Old White Stone and Spotted Tail Agencies two and one-half years; ran a hotel at Springfield one year; engaged in farming two years; was about eight months clerk at Fort Scully. July, 1877, came to this Agency, where he has since remained as trader, doing a business of about $18,000 a year. He was appointed Postmaster soon after coming to this agency.

CHARLES HILL, Superintendent Santee Agency, is a native of Canada; there learned the carpenter trade, which he followed about eight years. In 1873, at the annual meeting in Genesee, N. Y., he was selected by the Society of Friends, to come to this agency, and was appointed by the agent carpenter. After filling various other positions, he was finally appointed Superintendent, which position he now holds. There are on an average about thirty men employed here under his supervision.

DR. GEORGE W. IRA, physician and surgeon, was born in Washington County, Pa. At about the age of nineteen came to Columbus, Ohio, there attended the Starling Medical College; graduated from that institution March 1863. November 1864, came to Decatur, Neb., engaged in the practice of his profession there about eight years. May, 1872, he removed to the Yankton Agency, and has since been in the employ of the U. S. Government as physician. October 1, 1875, came to the Santee agency.

ISAIAH LIGHTNER, U. S. Indian Agent, is a native of Carroll County, Md., where he was born and raised. He was a clerk in a store several years, and enlisted in 1862 in Company F, Seventh Maryland Infantry; was promoted to Captain, which position he held when mustered out of the service at the end of the war. He was wounded at the battle of Five Forks, Va. At the close of the war he returned to Union Bridge, Md., and engaged in merchandising, which he continued there until 1877, when he was appointed by President Hayes Agent of the Santee Sioux Indians, Knox County, Neb., since which time the Flandreau and Ponca Indians of Dakota have been consolidated with Santee. There are about thirty Indian and white employes employed on various branches of business, viz.: saw and grist mill, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, harness shop, brick making and lime burning. The Santee tribe number 769, Flandreaus 860, and Poncas 172. There is one Mission and one Congregational Mission, also a Government School. The number of children attending the schools is 191;; this includes an Indian School at Springfield, Dak. The bricks manufactured here are of a superior quality, resembling in color and quality the Milwaukee brick. The Major has purchased 350 acres of land in Platte County, Neb., which he is improving, intending to make it his future home.

REV. GEORGE R. OAKE, Principal Industrial Boarding School, is a native of England; came to Jackson County, Iowa, with his parents when a child. After receiving a common school education he entered the Worthington and Warner's Business College at Aurora, Ill., where he graduated in 1869; was afterward employed as clerk on Mississippi steamers, and merchandising the past six years. He has been actively engaged in the ministry. He has had twelve years' experience as a teacher previous to his attending college. Was appointed to his present position January 1, 1882.

WILLIS SHEPARD, harness maker, is a native of Chenango County, N. Y. When a boy he commenced to learn this trade in Norwich; carried on a shop at Smyrna, N. Y., a number of years. In 1866 came to Cedar Falls, Iowa; there carried on this business, also at other points in the State. In 1880 came to this agency; was appointed to this position. He has four Indian men under his charge, who are learning this trade. He owns a farm of 160 acres, four miles from Niobrara, which he is improving, and where his family now reside.


As early as 1850, vivid accounts of the Niobrara country had reached Council Bluffs, Iowa, through mountain traders and pioneer Mormons. The Mormons had attempted a settlement near the mouth of the Niobrara, in 1845, a few months previous to establishing their town "Winter Quarters," now Florence, in Douglas County. Their efforts were frustrated by the persistent opposition of Indian tribes, but traces of their short-lived settlement remained many years.

At the time these glowing descriptions of the Niobrara country first reached Council Bluffs, B. Y. Shelley, a member of the future L'Eau qui Court Company, was residing there. He determined to make, as soon as practicable, explorations for himself. Accordingly in May, 1856, in company with R. R. Cowan, another prominent promoter of the enterprise, he set out to explore the Territory, and to select the most favorable location for a town site. After a toilsome journey of some weeks, they were finally rewarded by a view of the reality they were seeking, the beautiful plateau at the mouth of the Niobrara. The first glance was decisive as to its identity. Nothing now remained but to mark out the claim. This was done June 7, 1856, in the presence of the entire tribe of the Poncas, one of whose villages had been here for many years. Henceforward the town of Niobrara became known in the history of the country.

In the succeeding September, the first building in Niobrara was erected. It was known as the "Old Cabin," was situated on the bank of the Missouri, and constructed of logs three feet in diameter, designed to subserve the double purpose of protection against the elements and their Indian enemies. The old cabin being built, they returned to Sioux City and Council Bluffs, and invited friends to join them in starting the town of Niobrara. The L'Eau qui Court Company was then formed, consisting of the following members: B. Y. Shelley, President; James Tufts, Vice-President; H. W. Hargis, Secretary; J. Austin Lewis, Treasurer; W. H. Benner, R. R. Cowan, George W. Gregg and Henry Thompson, all of whom became residents of Niobrara; and in addition, a number of prominent gentlemen of other places, as Judge A. W. Hubbard, and M. F. Moore, of Sioux City, and Joseph Holman, of Dakota City. In the fall of 1856, improvements were commenced by the company, but during the following winter the Poncas burned what houses and other buildings had been erected, except the "old cabin" or "fort," into which the settlers had retreated for safety, and in which B. Y. Shelley, R. R. Cowan, M. Huddleston and J. T. Smull passed the winter. During this winter the L'Eau qui Court Company was incorporated, its claim defined, and liberal ferry and bridge privileges guaranteed. The claim of the company comprised almost the entire Niobrara bottom, for a town site, about 3,000 acres in extent. The desire, and even the hope seem to have existed, to build up a very large town in a very short time, in an entirely unsettled country. Niobrara became the county seat during this winter.

On the 29th of June, 1857, the steamer Omaha, from St. Louis, landed at Niobrara, with lumber and other freight. This was more than a surprise to the Poncas, who, jointly with the white settlers, still occupied the ground. Three days after the landing of the Omaha, the first frame building in Niobrara was completed, and immediately thereafter a saw-mill, brought up on the boat, was put in operation. As indicative of the company's anticipations for the growth of Niobrara, may be mentioned the fact that in three months from the starting of the saw-mill, a three-story, $10,000 hotel was completed, believed to have been then the largest in Nebraska.

In August, 1857, there were more than sixty men living in, and in the vicinity of Niobrara, among whom were the following: Ferdinand Wies, H. W. Hargis, Henry Sturgis, William Lamont, Frank West, J. S. Gregory and J. A. Potter. The post office was established, and B. Y. Shelley appointed Postmaster; and a store was opened by Ferdinand Wies, in this year.

Among the settlers who came in 1858, were T. N. Paxton, Christian G. Benner, William Bigham, Kelly W. Frazer, and others, and of those in 1859, T. G. Hullihen, Otto E. C. Knudsen and H. Westermann, the latter opening the second store in Niobrara the next day after his arrival in town.

Fritz Bruns arrived here in 1861.

In 1859, the L'Eau qui Court Company failed, and early in 1860, the "Niobrara Town Company" was organized. The new company was composed of J. S. Gregory, Joel A. Potter, Robert M. Hagaman, Walter M. Barnum, Christian G. Benner, Ferdinand Wies, B. Y. Shelley, J. Austin Lewis, H. W. Hargis, James Tufts, and A. W. Hubbard. The patents to the town site were issued to the new company in 1861. But on account of the breaking out of the great Rebellion, and the Minnesota massacre in 1862, it was never very prosperous; both events concurring in retarding the settlement of the northern part of the state.

The first birth in Niobrara was that of a daughter to Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Hargis, and a few weeks afterwards, on October 15, 1858, a son was born to Mr. and Mrs. William Lamont. The first marriage was that of Henry Sturgis to Miss Maria M. Paxton, October 26, 1862, and the first death that of Miss Mary Wiseman, in the spring of 1859. The first school was taught by J. H. Billings, in 1871.


Niobrara was incorporated November 8, 1878. The first Board of Trustees were B. F. Chambers, H. M. Wilcox, Vac Randa, C. G. Benner, Sr., and G. Howe.

The present board are A. L. Towle, James T. Conklin, H. Westerman, John Mitchell and J. C. Thomas. Attorney, J. W. Perkins, Treasurer, Solomon Draper; Clerk, James A. Cooley.

The Methodist Church was organized in 1878, with ten members, by Rev. W. H. Porter, who was the first regular minister. In 1880, a church building was erected at a cost of about $1,500. It was moved to the new location of Niobrara in September 1881.

The Presbyterian Church was organized by Rev. George Williams, November 12, 1880, with sixteen members. The church building was erected in the spring of 1882, at a cost of about $2,500. It is located in the southwestern part of the new town, and was dedicated June 11, 1882.

The L'Eau qui Court Cemetery Association was organized and incorporated in 1874, with the following as members: T. G. Hullihen, C. G. Benner, H. Westerman, John Pattee, O. E. C. Knudson, John C. Santee, Anson Bottsford and Edwin A. Fry.

The Land Office for this district was removed from Dakota City to Niobrara, October 1, 1875. James Stott was receiver from that time to 1881, when the present incumbent, H. S. Lovejoy, was appointed. B. F. Chambers has been Register in the office since within a short time of its removal, or about six years. The location of this office at Niobrara has been of great convenience and benefit to the people of Knox County.

The Niobrara Valley Bank was started in February, 1880, by Solon Bevins and Otis Perrine. On April 19, 1881, Mr. Bevins sold his interest to Mr. Perrine and Solomon Draper. Mr. Perrine died of apoplexy April 22, 1881, his widow succeeding to his interest in the bank. The business of the institution has since been conducted by Mr. Draper.

The town of Niobrara was beautifully situated on the south bank of the Missouri, about two miles below the mouth of the Niobrara River, until after the great flood of 1881, when the larger portion of it was removed about one and one-half miles to the southwest and is now located on the "bench," a beautiful plateau, slightly elevated above the remainder of the Niobrara bottom, and adjacent to the bluffs. At the time of the removal the town contained three general stores, two drug stores, two hardware stores, one harness shop, two blacksmiths, five hotels, two livery stables, three physicians, twelve lawyers, one schoolhouse, one church building, a court house--two story brick--two newspapers and about 500 inhabitants. All of the business of the town, and all of the inhabitants, except about sixty, removed to the new town as soon as practicable after the subsidence of the water.


The flood at this point was less destructive than at points farther down the river and was in some respects of advantage to Niobrara, inasmuch as it caused the removal of the town to its present site. The water began to rise on the night of March 29, and rose very suddenly until it reached the depth of from three to seven feet, filling up cellars and covering the first floors of the houses to from six inches to two feet or more in depth. Considerable furniture and some pianos were ruined, as well as goods in stores, and some live stock on the bottom, The heaviest loser of stock was Frank Janausek, who lost twenty-nine head of cattle and five horses. About seventy-five cattle in the aggregate and fifteen horses were lost. Although the suffering and loss was considerable, directly from the flood, contemporaneous publications, made without full knowledge of the facts, greatly exaggerated both. The moving of the town was commenced in July, 1881, and was continued as fast as practible until nearly all the dwellings and business houses were removed. The moving cost about $40,000, which sum is much larger than the amount of the actual value of property directly destroyed. Now, however, the people feel a sense of security they never could have felt on the old town site, being on a plateau about twenty feet above it, and close to the bluffs, so that escape is easy in the event of a future flood reaching them, which event is extremely improbable.

The Niobrara Pioneer.--This paper was started in September, 1874, by Edwin A. Fry, its present editor and proprietor. At first it was a four column folio, but in about a month, as prospects brightened, it was enlarged to a four column quarto. It has always been independent in politics, and has steadily believed the right should rule. As a consequence it has sometimes been out of favor but in the end, its proprietor believes, has been the gainer in pecuniary as well as in other ways. It has continued under the same management ever since its establishment.

The Knox County News.--This paper was started in May, 1879, by the News Printing Company, composed of Messrs. Smith Hill and Bruce. At first it was a seven column folio and independent in politics. As it was desired that a Republican paper be published in Niobrara, John C. Santee purchased the News in November 1879, enlarged it to a nine column folio, and has since conducted it as a straight Republican periodical. A good job printing office is connected with the paper and in 1880 a stereotyping department was added.


EMMET BARBER, of the firm of Draper & Barber, real estate and abstracts, was born in St. Lawrence County, N. Y. When seventeen years of age he came to Ohio, where he lived two years. In 1870 he came to Cresco, Howard Co., Iowa; followed surveying and engineering five years. In 1875 came to Winnesheik County; also continued surveying and engineering there for five years. In 1880 he removed to Niobrara; has since followed surveying and real estate business. His is prepared to furnish a complete title of any property in Knox County.

H. E. BONESTEEL, of the firm of Bonesteel & Turner, general merchandise. Is a native of Oswego County, N. Y. In about 1870 came to Yankton, D. T.; engaged in merchandising; a few years later removed to Springfield where he has since been engaged in general merchandising. Their business in Niobrara was established in 1879, this being the leading firm here.

FRED BRUNS, farmer and live stock dealer, was born in Hanover, Germany; in 1855; came to St. Louis, Mo.; in 1861 came to Niobrara. He with Mr. Westermann opened Indian trading posts at different points; continued at this business about ten years. He owns about 300 acres of land on this bottom, also town property. He has been County Commissioner three years, and County Treasurer two years. Married in 1870 to Anna Kuntz, of Prussia. They have four children, Mena, Anna, Adelia and Lenora.

B. F. CHAMBERS, Register U. S. Land Office, was born in Westmoreland County, Pa. In 1832 came to Grinnell, Iowa, in 1855 came to Dakota County, Neb. In 1858 engaged in farming; was Sheriff six years, Deputy U. S. Marshal three years. He represented Dakota and Dixon counties in the Legislature in 1874 and 1875. He was appointed Register of the U. S. Land Office in March 1875. Came to Niobrara, June, 1876, and assumed the duties of the office. Enlisted in 1862 in Company I, Second Nebraska Cavalry; served thirteen months.

CHARLES COOLEY, County Judge and attorney at law, is a native of Havre de Grace, Md. In 1869 commenced reading law in Belair, Md., with H. W. Archer. In 1870 he entered the Maryland Agricultural College; was admitted to the bar in 1872. He also attended the Newark Academy, Del., two years from 1867 to '69. April, 1873, came to Bon Homme, D. T.; there opened a law office. April, 1876, came to Niobrara; continued the practice of law. In the fall of 1877 he was a candidate for County Judge on the Democratic ticket; was elected by a majority of 141, the majority of this county being about 600 Republican. He is now serving his second term; elected this term by a majority of 168.

SOLOMON DRAPER, attorney at law and banker, is a native of Huntington County, Ind.; there he was raised. In 1865 came to Upper Alton, Ill.; entered the Shurtleff College and graduated in 1872. He then went to Ann Arbor, Mich., entered the law department of the University of Michigan, and graduated from that institution in 1874. In the spring of 1875 came to Niobrara; has since been engaged in the practice of his profession. This bank was organized by Bevins & Perine, February, 1880, known as the Niobrara Valley Bank. April, 1881, Mr. Draper bought out Mr. Bevins' interest and has since been a member of this firm.

EDWIN A. FRY, editor Niobrara Pioneer. This was the first paper published in the county, being established in 1874. Mr. F. is a native of Norwalk, Conn. He has been engaged in the printing business since a boy. In 1874 he was appointed Postmaster; held the office two years. He was again appointed to this office, September, 1881; held the office until February, 1882.

THOMAS G. HULLIHEN, farmer and live stock dealer, was born in Northumberland County, Pa. Came to Niobrara, June 2, 1859, homesteaded this land, which was the sixth homestead in this district, now owns about 200 acres, the grade of the C., M. & St. P. R. R. is about seventy rods west of his residence and about three-quarters of a mile south of the Missouri River, the location for the depot is on the line between his and Mr. Lamont's land. In about 1866, he took the school census of this county, which numbered eighty scholars, including the half breed children, he was nine years County Commissioner, he issued and signed the first county warrants, as Chairman of the Board; he represented Knox and Holt counties in the Legislature, in 1876-77, and has held many other offices in the gift of the people.

HERKO KOSTER, proprietor of Farmers' Hotel and real estate agent, is a native of Prussia. In 1860, came to America. In 1865, he entered the regular army as private, after promoted to Corporal, then Sergeant, then First Sergeant then Commissary Sergeant. In 1871, he received the appointment of Hospital Steward of the United States Army, resigned this position in 1873, he had command of a squad of soldiers on the Running Water, placed there for the protection of settlers. Had two skirmishes with the Sioux Indians, remained there in charge four months; he afterward engaged in contracting for mail routes. In 1875, he engaged in the hotel business, two years later took up real estate and land, which he has since continued.

WILLIAM LAMONT, general merchandise, was born in Scotland. Came with his parents, when a child, to Pennsylvania, was raised in Pottsville, Schuylkill Co., there served his time as a machinist, worked there at the trade two or three years. In 1855, came to Buchanan County, Iowa, July 6, 1857, came to Niobrara, he is the oldest settler here, he pre-empted this land, 184 acres on the bottom, now owns about 300 acres, in this locality and about 320 acres three miles south, the past ten years he has been engaged in merchandising, has been Treasurer of the School Board and County Commissioner, his store is located about half a mile east from the grade of the C., M. & St. P. R. R., and about two miles south of the Missouri River.

H. S. LOVEJOY, Receiver United States Land Office,. Is a native of Columbia County, N. Y. At the age of twelve years came to Lorain County, Ohio. In 1845, went to New York City, engaged in merchandising until 1857, returned to Ohio, also following merchandising. At the breaking out of the war he was commissioned Captain of Company D, Twenty-third Ohio Infantry, served three years. Ex-President Hayes was then Major of the regiment, after leaving the service he returned to New York, continued merchandising. In the summer of 1871, came to Chicago. November, 1872, came to Antelope County, Neb., there being but one house there at that time, he homesteaded 160 acres, which he improved. He afterward removed to Oakdale, opened a store which he continued till 1879, was then appointed Postmaster, held the office until July, 1880, when he was appointed to his present position. Assumed the duties of this office January, 1881.

I. B. MILLER, livery stable. Is a native of Wayne County, Ohio, when a boy came with his parents to Independence, Iowa, there attended the public school; in the spring of 1873, came to Knox County, Neb., in the fall of 1875, was elected County Treasurer, held this office two terms, he has previously been engaged in school teaching. In 1880, he commenced his present business. Married September 2, 1880, Miss Belle McClintock of West Union, Iowa.

JUDGE THOMAS N. PAXTON, poultry and stock dealer, was born April 26, 1818, in Murray County, Tenn. At about the age of fourteen, came to Indiana, thence to DuPage County, Ill. Worked at blacksmithing and wagon making for a time, then as carpenter on a section for the Ill. C. R. R. Was appointed by president Mattison, remaining in the employ about eighteen months. "Paxton," the name of a station on this road was named after him. From 1856 to 1857, he was a resident of Mitchell County, Iowa. In the fall of 1857, removed to Minnesota. In 1858, came to Niobrara, lived up the Niobrara River about five years, engaged in farming and trading with the Indians. He then removed his store to Niobrara, continued in business until 1875, then kept hotel about four years. Was elected Probate Judge in 1864, held this office until 1878, now engaged in the poultry raising. After coming to Niobrara, was elected County Commissioner, and re-elected to serve four years. He was the second Postmaster in this county, the office was located at Shiloh, on the Running Water.

VIC RANDA, County Clerk. Is a native of Bohemia; in 1866 came to Chicago, worked at various kinds of employment; he organized a colony of which he was chosen secretary, consisting of about 300, who wishing to improve their condition came west, about one-half this number settled in Nebraska; in 1870, he came to Niobrara, soon after was appointed County Treasurer, also Justice of the Peace, he is now serving his fifth term as County Clerk, he was admitted to the bar soon after coming to Niobrara.

[Portrait of John C. Santee.]

JOHN C. SANTEE, Postmaster, is a native of Columbia County, Pa.; at the age of fourteen came with his parents to Tuscola County, Mich.; enlisted, in 1862, in Company D, Twenty-third Michigan Infantry; was recommended for a West Point cadetship from the army by thirty-six officers and two Brigade Commanders for meritorious service; served to the end of the war; returned to Michigan; engaged in farming; in 1874, came to Niobrara; taught school sixteen months; in February, 1876, was appointed Postmaster; held the office until September, 1881, when he was removed for not being in "proper sympathy with the administration;" was re-appointed January 12, 1882; is Mayor and Notary Public. November 26, 1879, he assumed charge of the Knox County News, now ably conducted by himself and Mr. B. C. Hill; has been a Delegate to every State Convention held since 1876, and for two years a member of the State Central Committee; was the first man to bring out the name Hon. E. K. Valentine as the successor of Hon. Frank Welch, member of Congress.

R. E. W. SPARGUR, firm of Spargur & Hogsett, attorneys at law, is a native of Hillsboro, Highland Co., Ohio. In 1873, came to Montgomery County, Iowa; there took up the study of law; afterward attended the law school at the Iowa State University; graduated in 1876. He then practiced about two years in Iowa. September, 1878, came to Niobrara, and has since been actively engaged in this profession. He was elected County Judge in the fall of 1879; served two years.

HENRY STORM, gardener, farming, and ice dealer, was born in Holstein, Germany; in 1856, came to Jasper County, Iowa; followed farming; in 1866, came to Fremont, Neb.; engaged in farming; afterward kept a hotel; in 1875, came to Niobrara; ran a hotel and ferry; after engaged in lumber; now engaged in gardening and ice business. Married, March 10, 1873, Mary Pagelen, of Oldenberg, Germany. They have three children-Mamie, Louis and Anna.

A. L. TOWLE, proprietor of Hubbard House, is a native of Salem, Mass. At about the age of fifteen he went to sea; followed as a sailor the sea about seven years. His voyages have extended all over the world. He served during the war eight months with the Salem Independent Cadets; was master of a schooner running from Beaufort to Hilton Head, S. C.; afterward mate of an armed transport owned by the government, and later was Assistant Harbor Master at Light House Inlet. In about 1865, returned to Salem; the fall of that year crossed the plains to Colorado; returned in 1866; in the fall came to Omaha. February, 1867, he went to Fort Laramie, Denver, and Central City; a few months later to Cheyenne; returned to Omaha in 1868. The following year he went to Kansas. In the fall of 1869, returned again to Omaha. In the spring of 1871, he, with the Bruce Colony, came to Creighton and located that town. In the fall of 1875, he was elected County Clerk; soon after removed to Niobrara, where he has since resided. He owns this hotel, which he built in 1878 and which is the largest and by far the best house in Knox County.

NEAL WALTERS, Sheriff, was born in Canada, in the year 1844, and moved with his parents to Grand Rapids, Mich., in the year 1853; lived there on a farm until the war broke out; enlisted in 1862, in Company H, Sixth Regiment Michigan Cavalry, as a private; served three years and three months, and was mustered out in 1865, as Orderly Sergeant. In 1879, came to Knox County, Neb., and took a homestead of 160 acres of land, on Section 25, Town 81, Range 6 west, which is mostly improved. In 1880, was appointed Postmaster at Sparta, Knox Co., Neb.; in the fall of 1881, was elected Sheriff of this county.

GEORGE LEONARD WEIGAND, farmer, Section 2, P. O. Herrick, was born January 6, 1824, in Bavaria. In 1854, came to Cleveland, Ohio; worked at cabinet-making about three years, he having learned this trade in Germany, where he followed it about nine years. In 1857, came to St. James, Neb.; worked at this trade and farmed about four years. In 1861, came to this farm, took a homestead of 160 acres, adding other land as his means would permit; now owns over 1,000 acres. Not being able to buy a wagon, he conceived the idea of building one, the wheels of which he made by sawing from a large tree. By years of strict economy and attention to business, he has succeeded in acquiring a large amount of property, and may be classed among the wealthiest farmers in Knox County. He has now a very desirable home, surrounded with all the comforts that may be desired. This fine farm is located five miles south of the Missouri river. The buildings are well protected by the surrounding hills; also an abundance of forest trees and well watered. His family consists of wife, three sons and six daughters, who are well accomplished. Last year he, with Mrs. Weigand and four children, made a visit to their native country, they being absent nine months.

HERMAN WESTERMANN, real estate, is a native of Hanover, Germany. In 1852, he came to Cincinnati, Ohio, clerked in a store. In 1858, went to New York, also clerked in a store. In 1854, came to Chicago, engaged in wholesale notion and fancy goods. In the spring of 1859, made a trip South. August of this year, came to Niobrara, opened an Indian trading post here and at other points, continued this business until 1880. Was Postmaster about nine years, also Justice of the Peace and Deputy County Treasurer, afterward elected County Treasurer, which office he held about seven years. Is Chairman if the Town Board. He owns most of the river front on this bottom, together with about 106 lots in the old town.

A. B. WILCOX, firm of E. P. Wilcox & Co., lumber and grain dealers, was born in Henry County, Illinois. When a boy, his parents moved to Chicago. He was pursuing his studies at Phillips Academy , Andover, Mass., at the breaking out of the war of the Rebellion in 1861. In 1862, he enlisted in Battery B, First Illinois Light Artillery, and was in active service and participated in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Champion Hills, Siege of Vicksburgh, Mission Ridge, Resaca, Dallas and Kenesaw Mountain. From July, 1864, to close of the war, he was on detached service in Adjutant General's Office of the Department and Army of the Tennessee. In 1865, he engaged in the lumber business, which he has since followed. In 1869, his brother, E. P. Wilcox, opened a lumber yard at Yankton, D. T., which they still carry on. The Niobrara yard was established in 1878, and for the first two years they chartered the steamer Niobrara to transport their lumber from Sioux City to Niobrara and to take grain on return trip. Their Niobrara and O'Neill yards are the largest in Northern Nebraska.

CARL WITTE, farmer and live stock dealer, was born in Hanover, Germany; in 1867, came to St. Louis, Mo., worked in a creamery about two years. In 1869, came to Niobrara. He owns 253 acres of land. He had the contract for carrying the mail from Yankton to Niobrara, from 1874 to 1878. Was Sheriff five years, County Commissioner three years.

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