produced this selection.

## EBERLY'S LIST OF 1877 UNIT MEASURESExtracted from Robinson's Progressive Practical Arithmetic for
Common Schools and Academies by Daniel W. Fish, A.M., Ivison, Blakeman &
Company, NY, (1877), an old math book which gives these units of measure.
Surveyors Square Measure 625 Square Links = 1 Pole abv P. 16 Poles = Square Chain " sq. ch. 10 Square Chains = 1 Acre " A. 640 Acres = 1 Square Mile " sq. mi. 36 Square Miles = 1 Township " Tp. A square mile of land may also be called a section. Engineers commonly use a chain, or measuring tape 100 feet long, each foot divided into tenths. The contents of land are commonly estimated in square miles, acres, and hundredths; the denomination, rood, is no longer used. Surveyor's Long Measure A Gunter's Chain, used by land surveyors, is 4 rods or 66 feet long, and consists of 100 links. 7.92 Inches = 1 Link l. 25 Links = 1 Rod rd. 4 Rods, or 66 feet, = 1 Chain ch. 80 Chains = 1 Mile mi. Rods are seldom used in chain measure, distances being taken in chains and hundredths. Coinage (by the Coinage act of 1873) The Coin of the United States consists of gold, silver, nickel, and bronze. The Gold Coins are the double-eagle, eagle, half-eagle, quarter-eagle, three-dollar and one-dollar pieces. The Silver Coins are the dollar, half-dollar, quarter-dollar, and twenty-cent, and ten-cent pieces. The Nickel Coins are the five-cent and three-cent pieces. The Bronze Coins are the one-cent pieces. 10 Mills (m.) = 1 Cent ct. 10 Cents = 1 Dime d. 10 Dimes = 1 Dollar $. 10 Dollars = 1 Eagle E. The mill is a denomination used only in computations: it is not a coin. The trade-dollar is designed solely for commerce and not for currency. Its weight is 420 grains. The weight of the currency dollar of 1878 is 412 1/2 grains. The character $ is supposed to be a contraction of U. S. (United States), the U being placed upon the S. Currency - English appx. US value 4 Farthings (far.) = 1 Penny d. .0202 12 Pence = 1 Shilling s. .2433 20 Shillings = 1 Pound or Sovereign $4.8665 Currency - Canada Currency of the whole Dominion of Canada was made uniform July 1, 1871. Before the adoption of the decimal system, pounds, shillings, and pence were used. Weights Troy Weight is used in weighing gold, silver, and jewels, and in philosophical experiments. 24 Grains (gr.) = 1 Pennyweight pwt. 20 Pennyweights = 1 Ounce oz. 12 Ounces = 1 Pound lb. Apothecaries Weights Used by Apothecaries and physicians in compounding dry medicines; but medicines are bought and sold by Avoirdupois Weight. 20 Grains (gr. xx) = 1 Scruple sc. 3 Scruples = 1 Dram dr. 8 Drams = 1 Ounce oz. 12 Ounces = 1 Pound lb. Avoirdupois Weight Avoirdupois Weight is used for all the ordinary purposes of weighing. 16 Ounces = 1 Pound lb. 100 Pounds = 1 Hundred-weight cwt. 20 Cwt. or 2000 lbs. = 1 Ton T. The long or gross ton, hundred-weight, and quarter were formerly in common use; but they are now seldom used except in estimating English goods at the U. S. custom-houses, and in freighting and wholesaling coal at the mines. Long Ton Table 16 Ounces = 1 Pound 28 Pounds = 1 Quarter qr. 4 Quarters = 1 Hundred-weight, cwt. 20 Cwt,=2240 lbs= 1 Ton T. The following denominations are also in use: 100 Pounds of Grain or Flour = 1 Cental 100 " Dry Fish = 1 Quintal 100 " Nails = 1 Keg 196 " Flour = 1 Barrel 200 " Pork or Beef = 1 Barrel 280 " Salt at N.Y.S. = 1 Barrel 56 " Salt at N.Y.S. = 1 Bushel 240 " Lime = 1 Cask 32 " Oats = 1 Bushel 56 " Corn = 1 Bushel 60 " Wheat = 1 Bushel Linear Measure or Long Measure is used in measuring lines and distances. 12 Inches = 1 Foot 3 Feet = 1 Yard 5 1/2 Yd. or 16 1/2 feet = 1 Rod 320 Rods = 1 Statute Mile The following denominations are also in use: 3 Barleycorns = 1 Inch -- Used by shoemakers 4 Inches = 1 Hand -- Used to measure horses at the shoulder 6 Feet = 1 Fathom -- Used to measure depths at sea 1.152 2/3 Statute Mi. = 1 Geog. mile -- Used to measure distance at sea 3 Geographic Mi. = 1 League = 3.458 st. mi. 60 Geographic Mi. = 1 Degree -- of latitude or longitude on the equator 360 Degrees = Circumference of the Earth Cubic Measure, also called Solid Measure, is used in estimating the contents of solids, or bodies; as timber, wood, stone, etc. 1728 Cubic Inches make 1 Cubic Foot 27 Cubic Feet make 1 Cubic Yard 16 Cubic feet make 1 Cord Foot 8 Cord Feet make 1 Cord of Wood (Cd.) 128 Cubic Feet make 1 Cord of Wood 24 3/4 cubic Feet make 1 Perch of Stone or Masonry (Pch.) A cubic yard of earth is called a load. A pile of wood 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 4 feet high contains 1 cord; and a cord foot is 1 foot in length of such a pile. A perch of stone or masonry is 16 1/2 feet long, 1 1/2 feet wide, and 1 foot high. Liquid Measure, also called Wine Measure is used in measuring liquids; as liquors, molasses, water, etc. 4 Gills (gi.) = 1 Pint pt. 2 Pints = 1 Quart qt. 4 Quarts = 1 Gallon gal. 31 1/2 Gallons = 1 Barrel bbl. 2 Barrels, or 63 gal. = 1 Hogshead hhd. The following denominations are also in use: 36 Gallons = 1 Barrel of beer. 54 Gallons or 1 1/2 bbl. = 1 Hogshead of beer. 42 Gallons = 1 Tierce 2 Hogsheads or 120 Gallons = 1 Pipe or Butt 2 Pipes or 4 Hogsheads = 1 Tun The denominations barrel and hogshead are used in estimating the capacity of cisterns, reservoirs, vats, etc. The tierce, hogshead, pipe, butt, and tun are the names of casks and do not express any fixed or definite measures. They are usually gauged and have their capacities in gallons marked on them. Ale or beer measure, formerly used in measuring beer, ale, and milk is almost entirely discarded. The U. S. standard unit of liquid measure is the old English wine gallon, of 231 cubic inches, which is equal to 8.33888 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water at its maximum density, that is, at the temperature of 39.83 degrees Fahrenheit, the barometer at 30 inches. The U. S. standard unit of dry measure is the British Winchester bushel, which is 18 1/2 inches in diameter and 8 inches deep, and contains 2150.42 cubic inches, equal to 77.6274 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water, at its maximum density. A gallon, dry measure, contains 268.8 cubic inches. The wine and dry measures of the same denomination are of different capacities. The exact and the relative size of each may be readily seen by the following comparative table of measure of capacity. Cu. in. in Cu. in. in Cu. in. in one gallon One quart One pint Wine measure 231 57 3/4 28 7/8 Dry measure 268 4/5 67 1/5 33 3/5 The beer gallon of 282 inches is retained in use only by custom. A bushel is commonly estimated at 2150.4 cubic inches. Source: Robinson's Progressive Practical Arithmetic; containing The Theory of Numbers, in connection with concise analytic and synthetic methods of solution, and designed as a complete text-book on this science, for Common Schools and Academies by Daniel W. Fish, A. M. Author of the Table-book, primary and intellectual arithmetic, rudiments, and the "Shorter Course."; Ivison, Blakeman & Company, New York and Chicago; copyright, 1877 by Daniel W. Fish. Incidentally, for those of you among us concerned with the decline in education and its causes, this book consists almost entirely of word problems of a practical nature. For instance, following the above information are these problems: - 1. A fruit dealer bought a bushel of strawberries, dry measure, and sold them by wine measure; How many quarts did he gain?
- 2. A grocer bought 40 quarts of milk by beer measure, and sold it by wine measure; how many quarts did he gain?
- 3. A bushel, or 32 quarts, dry measure, contains how many more cubic inches than 32 quarts wine measure?
Barbara Eberly |